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How Pictures in Picture Storybooks Support Young Children's Story Comprehension: An Eye-Tracking Experiment

A young child sitting with her grandmother in a cozy reading corner, holding an open picture book and pointing to a picture, showing it to her grandmother. The child looks engaged and excited, while the grandmother smiles and listens attentively. The background includes bookshelves filled with colorful children's books and warm, inviting decor. The scene captures the bond between the child and her grandmother as they explore the story together.
Picture Storybooks for Child Comprehension

Story comprehension is a critical aspect of early childhood development, and picture storybooks play a significant role in this process. A study by Zsofia K. Takacs and Adriana G. Bus explored how different combinations of visual and auditory information in picture storybooks affect young children's comprehension. This blog delves into their findings and discusses the implications for using picture storybooks to enhance children's understanding and enjoyment of stories.

Study Overview

The study employed a within-participant design involving 41 children with a mean age of 64 months (ranging from 50 to 81 months). The children were exposed to brief stories under four distinct conditions:

Oral narration only: The children listened to the story with no accompanying pictures.

Oral narration with congruent pictures: The story was narrated orally, and pictures that matched the narration were displayed.

Oral narration with incongruent pictures: The story was narrated orally, but the pictures displayed did not match the narration.

Pictures only with no oral narration: The children viewed the pictures without any accompanying narration.

The children's eye movements were tracked to analyze how they engaged with the different types of visual and auditory information.

Key Findings

One of the significant findings of the study was that congruent pictures—those that aligned with the narration—substantially enhanced children's story comprehension. This was evident from the children's ability to retell the stories more accurately and in greater detail when the pictures matched the oral narration. In contrast, incongruent pictures did not support, and in some cases even hindered, comprehension.

The eye-tracking data revealed that children actively explored the pictures in a manner that allowed them to integrate the visual information with the narration effectively. This suggests that children use pictures to construct a mental model of the story, which aids in their overall understanding.

Implications for Interactive Reading and Picture Storybook Format

The findings of this study have several important implications for parents, educators, and publishers:

Interactive Reading: When reading to young children, it is beneficial to use picture storybooks with illustrations that closely match the text. Parents and educators should engage children by discussing the pictures and relating them to the story being told. This dual coding of information—where both visual and auditory inputs reinforce each other—can significantly enhance comprehension and retention.

Picture Storybook Design: Publishers and authors should consider the congruence between illustrations and text when designing picture storybooks. Ensuring that pictures accurately reflect the story's content can make the book more effective as a learning tool. Incongruent images can be confusing and may detract from the child's understanding of the story.

Educational Applications: The use of congruent pictures can be particularly valuable in educational settings, such as kindergarten classrooms. Teachers can use picture storybooks as a resource to improve children's listening skills, vocabulary, and overall language development. By incorporating books with well-matched illustrations, educators can create a more engaging and comprehensible learning experience.


The study by Takacs and Bus highlights the significant role that congruent pictures play in supporting young children's story comprehension. The integration of visual and auditory information helps children to better understand and remember stories, making picture storybooks a powerful tool in early childhood education. For parents, educators, and publishers, the key takeaway is to prioritize the alignment of illustrations with the story text to maximize the educational benefits of picture storybooks.


Takacs, Z. K., & Bus, A. G. (2018). How pictures in picture storybooks support young children's story comprehension: An eye-tracking experiment. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 178, 134-145. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2018.04.013


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